Footnotes Main Features
Footnotes and endnotes are essential elements in academic paper writing, providing additional publication information or citations without disrupting the main text flow. They are located at the bottom of the page number and numbered consecutively, and correspond to superscript numbers within the text. Footnotes ensure the reader can quickly reference sources, explanations, digressions, and the article title while maintaining their place in the text. Footnote varies based on various citation styles, including Chicago footnotes, Turabian, and APA.
Footnote styles can take different forms, such as content notes, which provide extra information or clarification, page numbers, and citation notes, which offer multiple sources of details. Correctly formatting footnotes ensures the document’s credibility and helps readers navigate through the information efficiently. In this article, we will discuss footnotes’ main features and uses, compare them to endnotes, explore APA footnotes, learn about in-text footnotes and content endnotes citations, and delve into Chicago-style and Turabian footnotes. Additionally, we will provide a step-by-step guide to formatting footnotes in Microsoft Word.
Footnotes vs. Endnotes
Footnotes and endnotes serve similar purposes, but their placement within a document differs. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the paper page near the title, while endnotes are at the end of a page or document. Both provide supplemental information, context, page number, or citations for the writing text.
You can make a choice between footnotes or endnotes with our custom writting service Edusson. It depends on the writer’s preference or shortened citation style guidelines. Footnotes are more reader-friendly, as they keep the reader on the same page as the reference, whereas endnotes require the reader to flip to the end of the article or page.
See examples below on how to format a footnote:
Cite: “The study found a significant correlation between the variables¹.” Footnote: “¹Smith, J. (2020). Correlation of Variables. Journal of Research, 15(3), 45-60.”
An endnote with the same title would be located at the end of the page or article:
Endnote: “1. Smith, J. (2020). Correlation of Variables. Oxford University Press, 15(3), 45-60.”
Using Footnotes in APA
Although the American Psychological Association (APA) style primarily uses footnote citations and a reference list, footnotes may occasionally be employed for supplementary information. APA footnotes should be used sparingly and only when necessary, such as providing content notes that clarify or expand on the text.
Our writing service of APA papers provides the format style, insert a superscript number at the end of the relevant sentence after the closing punctuation. The footnote should be placed at the bottom of the page near the page number and formatted using the same font and size as the main text but with a slightly smaller font size (e.g., if the text is in 12-point font, use 10-point font for the footnote). Begin the footnote with the superscript number.
For example, APA format footnotes might appear as follows:
Text: “Several studies have found a strong correlation between exercise and mental health.¹” Footnote: “¹For a comprehensive review of these studies, see Green, J., & Brown, A. (2021). Exercise and Mental Health: A Meta-analysis. Health Psychology, 20(1), 102-130.”
In-text footnotes provide additional information or citations directly within the text. They are typically used in disciplines such as law and history, where precise citation is crucial. In-text footnotes and endnotes can also be used to provide clarification, context, or translations.
In-text footnotes are formatted similarly to edit your essay but appear within the text itself, enclosed in brackets. The superscript number should be placed before the database name.
For example, an in-text footnote format might appear as follows:
Text: “The Magna Carta¹ (1215) established the principle of limited government and the rule of law².” In-Text Footnote: “¹The Great Charter; ²The principle that all people and institutions are subject to and accountable to the law.”
In this example, the in-text footnotes provide translations and explanations for terms used in the sentence.
Content Note Citation
Content notes are a type of footnote that provides supplementary information, context, or clarification not included in the text. Content notes are particularly useful when offering additional examples, explanations, or insights without interrupting the main bibliography.
For example, a content short note citation might appear as follows:
Particular passage: “The Impressionist movement had a significant impact on modern art¹.” Content Note: “¹For a detailed analysis of the Impressionist movement’s influence on modern art, see Berger, P. (2019). Impressionism and Beyond: Tracing Art’s Evolution. Art History, 34(2), 295-312.”
In this example, the content endnotes refer readers to a more comprehensive title analysis without distracting them from the article.
Copyright Note Citation in Text Citations
Copyright notes are a type of footnote used to cite sources of copyrighted material, such as images, figures, or tables, used in a document. They provide essential information about the copyright holder and the permission granted for the material’s use. Including a copyright, note citation ensures that the author respects intellectual property rights.
To format a copyright note citation, insert a superscript number at the end of the caption or description of the copyrighted article. Create footnotes at the bottom of the page numbers, following the same format as other footnotes. The copyright note should include the copyright symbol (©), the copyright holder’s name, shortened title, the publication date, the publication title, and a bibliography statement regarding copyright permissions for the material’s use.
For example, a copyright note citation for an image might appear as follows:
Figure Caption: “Figure 1. A graphical representation of the data collected during the study¹.” Copyright Note: “¹© Jane Doe, 2022. Reprinted with permission from Jane Doe, ‘Data Visualization in Research,’ Journal of Data Analysis, 30(4), 2022, 15-29.”
In this example, the copyright notes and acknowledges the source of the image, the copyright holder, and the permission granted for its use in the paper. Including a copyright, note citation not only maintains ethical standards in academic writing but also gives the database name to the original creator. Ensuring that all copyrighted materials are properly cited is essential to avoid plagiarism and any potential legal consequences with two or three authors. Always seek permission from the copyright holder before using copyrighted material in text citations and provide appropriate copyright citation notes as required. Only the first author should be mentioned.
Chicago Style and Turabian Style Footnotes
Chicago and Turabian citation styles use endnotes/footnotes extensively for providing source information. Both styles require a superscript number at the end of a sentence after the closing punctuation. It should be placed at the bottom of the page number, formatted using the same font and size as the main text, with slightly smaller footnote numbers and quotation marks.
In Chicago style, also called as Chicago manual, a full citation is provided in the first footnote, while subsequent citations of the same source use a shortened form.
For example, Chicago-style footnote examples might appear as follows:
Chicago footnotes: “The study found a significant correlation between the variables¹.”
First citation: “¹John Smith, Correlation of Variables (New York: Toronto Press, 2020), 45-60.” Footnote (subsequent citation): “¹Smith, Correlation of Variables, 49.”
How to Format Footnotes in Word
Formatting footnotes in Microsoft Word is a straightforward essay writing process. Follow these steps:
- Place the cursor at the end of the sentence where the footnote should appear.
- Go to the “References” tab on the ribbon and click “Insert Footnote”. Word will automatically insert a superscript number in the text and create a corresponding footnote at the bottom of the page.
- Type the footnote content in the footnote area, following the citation style guidelines for formatting.
- To change the footnote numbering or format, click on the “Footnote & Endnote” dialog box launcher in the “References” tab. Adjust the settings as needed and click “Apply”.
- To move between footnotes, use the “Next Footnote” and “Previous Footnote” buttons in the “References” tab. 6. To delete a footnote, remove the corresponding superscript number in the text. Word will automatically delete it and adjust the numbering for the remaining footnotes.
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Does the footnote go after the period?
Yes, in most citation styles, the superscript number is placed after the period or closing punctuation of the sentence containing the reference. This placement ensures the footnotes refer clearly to the cited information and maintains the readability of the page.
Can you use footnotes in MLA?
The Modern Language Association (MLA) style primarily uses in-text parenthetical citations and a Works Cited list. However, footnotes and endnotes can be used for supplementary information or content notes. They should be used sparingly rather than as a primary method to cite multiple sources.
What is the difference between Footnote and Bibliography or References?
Footnotes provide immediate source information or additional context at the bottom of a separate page, while bibliography lists compile all cited sources at the end of the paper. Footnotes allow readers to quickly access specific source details, whereas bibliography, article title, and reference lists offer a comprehensive overview of all online sources used in work.